RESOURCES FOR THE EXECUTION OF FLIPPED CLASSROOM IN MALAYSIAN ESL CLASSROOMS
Flipped classroom is one of the most significant technological innovations in the 21st century. The flipped classroom was introduced by Jonathan Bergmann and Aaron Sams for their trainees who had missed classes. Bergmann and Sams used live video recordings and screen casting software to record lectures, demonstrations, and slide presentation with annotations and posted them for the trainees to watch and read (Hamden, et, al., 2013).
Flipped classroom is a pedagogical approach which ensures that students become more active participants compared with the traditional classroom through activities which are conducted outside the classroom (Uzunboylu and Karagozlu, 2015). In a typical flipped classroom environment, pupils are required to watch instructional videos outside of the classroom or prior to their class. This enables pupils to learn at their own time and pace before the class session. Besides, it allows the instructors to use the class time for more practices, discussions, activities, and interactions. Houston and Lin (2012) recommend that the educational videos should be either recorded by the teachers or selected from any creditable online sources. Houston and Lin also suggest that to ensure that pupils watch the videos, the duration of each video should be relatively short; no longer than 20 to 30 minutes.
THE VALUES OF FLIPPED CLASSROOM
Flipped classroom promotes active learning. Zainuddin and Perera (2017) assert that flipped classroom promotes better interaction among pupils. When learners watch the videos assigned to them, they are not passive viewers. Yet, they have to be alert and observant throughout the process in order to complete the tasks assigned to them. Learners also provide feedbacks to each other and this supports the 21st century collaboration skills among them. They will share their knowledge and experience with their friends and later on in class, with their teacher.
Pupils will learn more as they have chances to get knowledge from the videos as well as from their teachers. The flipped classroom involves blended learning; a combination of face-to-face in-class learning and online learning experience. Students will benefit from participating in class group discussion and engaging in online video lessons and assignment that must be completed additionally outside of the class time (Garrison and Kanuka, 2004).
Autonomous learning is enhanced; learners take control of their own learning as they decide when and where to complete their tasks. The flipped classroom approach shifts the responsibility to get inputs from teacher to the learners (Egbert, et, al., 2015).
RESOURCES FOR ESL FLIPPED CLASSROOM
Surely, there are diverse choices of resources of videos which are linked to ESL or EFL. It is also beyond doubt, the final decision as to which resources to be chosen depends of a number of factors such as the learners’ need, background as well as teacher’s preference. The following are some examples of educational videos available in YouTube which could be suitable for the implementation of flipped classroom in Malaysian context:
Oxford Online English: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jul2urONzOQ&list=PLD6t6ckHsruY_i7_rZhKcRBmXDdawiqUM
Shaw English Online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=47LEelX7nhg
Dr. Lee: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x-L6J3qEyIo
Teacher Frank: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UXcZt21cTT0
ChuChu School Learning Videos: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0epaJMJJFyA
Twominute English: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t5LuqJJVhaE
Helena Daily English: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U3G5W2Kdr74
Learn English Through Story - The Stranger by Norman Whitney: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Iv-Ttr_Xm8
Kids Educ – Kids Educational Games: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e4p_Cd62cF0
Mr McGlover: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zPA5hWu7jIo
Oxford Online English: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VgTqZOZ1UMQ
Skooll Avatar Education System: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z9LKZx2hd9Q
Myteach 360: (Novel: Dear Mr Kilmer) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5rcsDy1wilQ
M Ehlers: (Poetry Terms) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RnPU8AOuQ_A
Robin66: (Elements of a short story) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jUbVH20qW0A
Owing to a flexible learning atmosphere and adjustable learning facilities, the flipped classroom is very suitable for language classes. Unquestionably, some ESL teachers may face some hurdles in implementing flipped classroom but it does not mean flipped classroom is harmful. Perhaps, certain adaptations have to be made, if necessary.
To me, flipped classroom should be implemented in our classroom as it will allow us to play our role as a facilitator who guides our learners. As Marshall (2013) points out, one key role for teachers is to “lead from behind”; teacher engages in “observation, feedback, and assessment” during class and, in the process, guides the learners’ thinking.
Moreover, flipped classroom is important in this 21st century learning and teaching approach. Muniandy (2018) highlights that as the curriculum requirement grows, teachers play an essential role to make sure their teaching methods fit to the current needs of students’ learning. Anyway, ESL teachers do not have to produce their own videos or resources as YouTube offers a host of materials which are relevant, practical and effective. The choice is always ours!
Abdullah, M.Y. (2019). Implementation of Flipped Classroom Model and Its Effectiveness on English Speaking Performance. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET) · May 2019. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333080546_Implementation_of_Flipped_Classroom_Model_and_Its_Effectiveness_on_English_Speaking_Performance/link/5cda92d1299bf14d95952747/download
Egbert, J., Herman, D., & Lee, H. (2015). Flipped Instruction in English Language Teacher Education: A design-based study in a complex, open-ended learning environment. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language, 19(2). Retrieved from http://www.teslej.org/pdf/ej74/a5.pdf
Garrison, D. R., & Kanuka, H. (2004). Blended learning: Uncovering its Transformative Potential in Higher Education. Internet and Higher Education, 7, 95-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2004.02.001
Hamden, N., McKnight, P., McKnight, K., & Arfstrom, K. M. (2013). A Review of Flipped Learning. Retrieved from http://www.pearsonschool.com/flippedlearning.
M. Houston and L. Lin. (2012). “Humanizing the Classroom by Flipping the Homework versus Lecture Equation,” Soc. Inf. Technol. Teach. Educ. Int. Conf. SITE 2012, pp. 1177–1182, 2012. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/277834812_Humanizing_the_Classroom_by_Flipping_the_Homework_versus_Lecture_Equation/link/57e5564a08ae8e5f8e647122/download
Marshall, H. W. (2013, March 21). Three reasons to flip your classroom. Retrieved
Muniandy, V. (2018). Effectiveness of Flipped Classroom on Students’ Achievement and Attitudes towards English Language in Secondary School. Journal of Innovative Technologies in Education (JITE) Vol. 2 (2018) 9-15. Retrieved from https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Effectiveness-of-Flipped-Classroom-on-Students%E2%80%99-and/b69885c49464aa296a7ea5e5a83ae453dba30094
Talley, C. P. and S. Scherer (2013). “The Enhanced Flipped Classroom: Increasing Academic Performance with Student-Recorded Lectures and Practice Testing in a “Flipped" STEM course,” J. Negro Educ., vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 339–347, 2013. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.7709/jnegroeducation.82.3.0339
Uzunboylu, H. and Karagozlu, D. (2015). Flipped Classroom: A Review of Recent Literature. World Journal on Educational Technology. Vol 7, Issue 2, (2015) 142-147. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/296691410_Flipped_classroom_A_review_of_recent_literature/link/56ddf2e108aedf2bf0c86f29/download
Zainuddin, Z., and Perera, C. (2017). Exploring Students’ Competence, Autonomy and Relatedness in the Flipped Classroom Pedagogical Model. Journal of Further and Higher Education. August, 1-12. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/0309877X.2017.1356916